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2000 - GREASE COMPATIBILITY REVISITED (PAPER # 0004) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) "To mix or not to mix." Grease compatibility is a vital subject in the grease industry especially with the end users. The issue of grease compatibility is important across the spectrum of applications where grease is used as a lubricant. Incompatibil...
2005 - TITANIUM - LITHIUM COMPLEX GREASE - A HIGH PERFORMANCE GREASE FOR IN... (PAPER # 0519) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) High Performance greases are used for critical applications viz. high temperatures, heavy loads, high speeds, water ingress conditions, etc. Conventional greases used for such applications are generally based on Li-complex, Al-complex, polyurea, and...
2006 - TRIBOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF PENNZANE-BASED GREASE TO PFPE-BASED GREASE... (PAPER # 0616) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Alternative greases to PFPE chemistry were evaluated by block-on-ring oscillating wear tests (ASTM D3704) to support recent aerospace proposal work.The application is to lubricate gear actuators for a commercial aircraft in conventional takeoff,...
2007 - GREASE BASED ON CARBON NANOTUBE (PAPER # 0708) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper, we report the effort to prepare the stable and homogeneous nanogrease in the oils (e.g. DURASYN® 166) with the motivation of enhancing its properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. The process of making these grease...
2003 - HOW CLEAN IS YOUR GREASE? (PAPER # 0317) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) We as an industry should promote grease cleanliness both during manufacture and especially during usage at the end user. There are very valid reasons for doing so, the service life of machinery components depend on it. Unexpected wear, premature fail...
1999 - NEW GLOBAL AEROSPACE GREASE SAE AMS-M AEROSPACE GREASE CORE SPECIFIC... (PAPER # 9926) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The SAE-Aerospace committee was formed in 1997 with the intention of consolidating different Aerospace greases' specifications. During the ELGI in Islo, June 1999, this committee completed the new Aerospace grease specifications. The new specificatio...
2001 - MANUFACTURING GREASE USING DRY TECHNOLOGY (PAPER # 0121) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) All lubricating greases consist of two primary ingredients. A base fluid which is the major component and which also provides most of the lubrication function. The other component is the thickener, which serves to immobilize the fluid. The choice of...
2009 - LUBRICATING GREASE FOR PLASTIC GEAR (PAPER # 0908) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In recent years, engineering plastics, and POM and PA in particular, have widely been used as gear materials in the automotive industry because of their contribution to reducing the production cost and total weight of a vehicle. Typical applications...
2007 - UNIVERSAL ATMOSPHERIC HIGH-PERFORMANCE GREASE KETTLES (PAPER # 0714) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This article describes a new line of commercially available atmospheric high-performance grease reactor kettles, eminently suitable for production of all known types of lubricating greases. These kettles are of original, modular design bas...
2000 - GREASE SHELF LIFE, NEW BEGINNINGS (PAPER # 0010) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A brief historical perspective on grease shelf life as well as an update on the current NLGI - ELGI grease shelf life working group. Peter Drechsler, received a B.S. degree in Physical Science from Central Connecticut State University. He has been...
2005 - THE IMPACT OF OIL SEPARATION ON THE APPARENT VISCOSITY OF GREASE (PAPER # 0502) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The primary modes of oil loss from a lubricating grease are volatility, oxidation, and temperature induced separation from the grease matrix. A study was conducted with seven different grease types to assess the change in apparent viscosity as a func...
2009 - BENEFITS OF POLYMER ADDITIVES IN GREASE (PAPER # 0918) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Polymer additives enhance grease performance at low treatment levels. The challenges grease manufacturers face can be addressed with the inclusion of polymer additives in a variety of grease types. The benefits of polymer additives in this study are...
1999 - CHARACTERISATION OF GREASE LUBRICANT FILMS (PAPER # 9924) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The nature of the lubricant film; its chemical composition, structure and adherence, plays an important role in the lubrication process. There have been many studies in fluid film lubrication where the composition of the surface films has been analys...
2009 - FOOD GRADE HIGH TEMPERATURE GREASE (PAPER # 0904) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) High viscosity synthetic esters have been used in high temperature industrial lubricants for many years. They are effective up to 288!C (550!F) and show little evaporation or oxidative degradation compared to other common lubricant basestocks. Inolex...
2001 - THE OUTLOOK FOR BASESTOCKS IN GREASE (PAPER # 0107) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper presents information and insights on how the shift from API Group I to Groups II/II+ and III base stocks is, and, will likely continue to impact the grease business in the US market. In addition to examining how performance requirements,...
1999 - SAPONIFICATION FOR LITHIUM GREASE MADE EASIER (PAPER # 9932) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper reviews several ways that current grease makes saponify lithium hydroxide monohydrate. A new method has been developed using a treated lithium hydroxide monohydrate which is completely soluble. This makes the saponification step react more...
2008 - CALCIUM SULFONATE GREASE-MAKING PROCESSES (PAPER # 0812) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Calcium sulfonate greases have been around since the 1960s and are unique because they have inherently good mechanical stability, high dropping points (>316°C), good antiwear, good Timken and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) performance without the use...
2004 - PERFORMANCE OF LUBRICATING GREASES IN THE PRESENCE OF WATER (PAPER # 0430) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Water may effect lubricating grease, and thus grease lubrication, in a number of ways. It may change in consistency becoming softer or occasionally firmer. The texture of grease may change, for example, it may become less stringy and less adhesive.
2005 - OVERBASED CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES AS GREASE PRECURSORS (PAPER # 0503) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Knowledge of the microstructural arrangement in grease is important in determining ultimate lubricating properties. Overbasing technology provides a pre-saponified liquid that enables onestep grease manufacturing through a gelation process. This pape...
2005 - BOEING PERSPECTIVE: AEROSPACE INDUSTRY GREASE SPECIFICATIONS (PAPER # 0528) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Boeing's requirements for grease specifications is shown by the development of BMS3-33, General Purpose Grease, and the subsequent development of SAE AMS 3052, a global specification. This has led to lubrication harmonization efforts with other avi...
2009 - MEASURING THE WORMS IN GREASE (PAPER # 0909) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Aqueous mixtures of surfactants have characteristic rheological properties. These properties are determined mainly by the micelle structure of the surfactants which can be characterized as 'wormlike'. On the other hand hydrocarbon mixtures of sur...
2005 - DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE LOW MOLY SULFIDE GREASE (PAPER # 0530) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium based grease constitutes a large fraction of the grease consumed in the aviation and automobile industry. Development of a high performance durable Lithium grease will reduce the maintenance cost in various applications. The durability and...
2003 - A TRIBOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION INTO GREASE MIXTURES WITHIN MIL-G-21164 (PAPER # 0305) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Current industry practice is to use lubricating grease by specification. Unless company specifications are written, the grease choice is often the lowest bidder or the choice of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). This paper reports results...
2002 - A STUDY ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF DIUREA GREASE (PAPER # 0219) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this test, amine and diisocyanate were used to synthesize diurea grease, and during the refining process collected samples with the container temperature increasing. The process of producing diurea grease was explored by mass spectroscopy (MS) and...
2009 - A RHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF CARBON NANOTUBE GREASE (PAPER # 0914) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The rheological impact of polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil based carbon nanotube (CNT) grease was investigated. These studies have shown that the CNT grease exhibited pseudoplastic behavior, which had a typical power law response and a definable yield stres...
2008 - THICKENER CONTENT IN ORGANIC GREASE BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIM... (PAPER # 0814) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Failure modes of lubricating grease include thermooxidation, excessive oil separation and evaporation of the base oil at elevated temperature. Loss of base oil from a grease alters the ratio of fluid component to thickener resulting in the transforma...
Grease: A Niche Market Opportunity STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) A look at the benefits of grease, how it’s different from oil and why no two greases are alike.
2004 - GETTING THE MOST BANG FOR YOUR BUCKS CONTINUOUS GREASE UNIT LITHIUM... (PAPER # 0401) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Solving grease quality and manufacturing problems and finding a good envelope of operating conditions can be a trying experience. In continuous grease manufacturing there are a myriad of process variables including but not limited to multiple tempera...
2004 - STUDYING PROCESS VARIABLE EFFECTS ON LUBRICATING GREASE QUALITY (PAPER # 0415) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Our objective is to discover the science of grease-making through a study that examines the effect of the process variables on the quality of the manufactured grease. Lubrizol researchers have developed a novel method to make lithium complex grease...
1999 - GREASE BASED LUBRICANT: MIST-FREE ROCKDRILL LUBRICATION (PAPER # 9918) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The product is a semi-fluid grease which is specifically formulated for mist-free operation in pneumatic rockdrills or similar mine drilling equipment and meets the specifications of the equipment manufacturers. This product provides a more productiv...
2001 - PROPER GREASE SELECTION REDUCES STEAM VALVE MAINTENANCE (PAPER # 0123) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The proper lubrication of motor operated valves (MOVs), used throughout the nuclear power generating industry to control the flow of steam, has been the focus of several ongoing and lengthy studies. The search for one grease that can properly...
1999 - AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PERFORMANCE OF GREASE ADDITIVES AS RELATED... (PAPER # 9906) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the age-old rules of grease manufacturing is to insure grease additives are added at a temperature at or below 90 *C. This study investigates the variations in performance of additives incorporated at 90 *C and 120 *C. The base grease used is...
2001 - SLIDE CAM COMPOUND GREASE LUBRICANT: DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION (PAPER # 0122) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the cam and slide compound type lubricants have undergone many changes in the last several years especially since the ban on chlorinated solvents came into effect in 1995. Several new grease based, solvent-free slide cam lubricants,...
2000 - A FEW INSIGHTS INTO GREASE TESTING (PAPER # 0019) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) What we all know about our products we learned from testing. Laboratory tests are used for research and development, quality control, and to determine the chemical and physical properties of greases and oils. Although various standards organizations...
2002 - THE APPLICATION OF RHEOLOGY TO GREASE CHARACTERISATION (PAPER # 0213) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The use of Rheology to evaluate the performance characteristics of grease is nothing new. The first paper published in the NLGI Spokesman concerning the rheology of greases appeared in Mar 1950, ("Basic Factors concerning the Structure and Rheology...
2000 - AN UNCONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO LOW TEMPERATURE GREASE (PAPER # 0009) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Greases manufactured for use in low to extremely low temperature climates have typically been formulated using polyalphaolefin or other costly synthetic basestocks. This has been primarily due to the fact that traditional mineral oil basestocks have...
2006 - SYNTHETIC SHEAR STABLE, WATER-RESISTANT EP GREASE COMPOSITION (PAPER # 0617) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper reports the preparation and performance evaluation of synthetic shear stable,water-resistant lithium complex base extreme pressure grease compositions.The synthetic shear stable,water resistant lithium complex base grease composition was...
2000 - THE FUTURE OF PUBLISHING FOR THE LUBRICANTS / GREASE INDUSTRY (PAPER # 0026) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Discussion of e-publishing, e-commerce and the use of the web to communicate information about lubricants and greases to users and customers. Diane Green, BS (Chemical Engineering) Villanova University. Currently the Publisher of Lubricants World...
2009 - GREASE AND ADDITIVE INFLUENCES ON FRETTING WEAR (PAPER # 0905) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Bearing manufacturers and end users have outlined grease requirements for improved performance in relation to fretting wear. The Fafnir Friction Oxidation Tester (FFOT) is the generally accepted test method to determine fretting wear weight loss from...
2002 - FLOW OBSERVATION OF LUBRICATING GREASES IN CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINTS (PAPER # 0224) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In constant velocity joints (CVJ) grease development, we have to consider the prevention of starvation to a lubricating part with the increase in sliding speed condition. Then, the method of visualizing and quantifying the mobility of the grease in...
2007 - APPROVAL PROCESS FOR A CERTIFIED POST TENSIONING GREASE (PAPER # 0720) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper is about the Post Tensioned Cable industry and the process of approving a grease for use as a coating for post tensioning cables. Background is given on the post tensioning industry and the industry's organization the Post Tens...
2003 - PREFORMED SOAP AS THICKENER AND EP-ADDITIVE FOR GREASE PRODUCTION (PAPER # 0313) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium-12-hydroxy-stearate based preformed soap is nothing but new. However, being the preformed soap a thickener and extreme-pressure additive at the same time, it is a new idea in grease making technology. Our development work is targeted to the...
2005 - STUDY OF SYNTHETIC OIL BASED CALCIUM SULFONATE COMPLEX GREASES (PAPER # 0504) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Calcium Sulfonate Complex Grease is excellent grease with its remarkable properties not only of thermal resistance, high EP, anti-wear and mechanical stability but also of resistance to corrosion and water. In this paper, we have made various studies...
2007 - THE INFLUENCE OF THE EP/AW ADDITIVES ON PROPERTIES OF THE LUBRICATING... (PAPER # 0712) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper, three kinds of additives were added to the three kinds of greases (the lithium complex grease, the urea grease and the bentonite grease), The influence of additives on properties of those greases including consistency, dropping point...
1999 - THE EFFECTS OF RUST INHIBITORS ON GREASE PROPERTIES (PAPER # 9922) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A 1998 paper by the same authors focused on a comparison of three ASTM grease rust tests: ASTM D 1743, the traditional static rust test in the U.S. which uses distilled water; ASTM D 5969, introduced in 1966 to include the use of synthetic sea water...
2007 - THE USE OF A STRESS RHEOMETER IN LIEU OF CONE PENETRATION (PAPER # 0725) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The Cone penetration test is used to provide a measurement of grease stiffness and is considered the most important of laboratory performed grease tests. The design of this test was intended to support new grease manufacture and sales. This...
2004 - EXTREME PRESSURE PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM COMPLEX GREASEFORMULATED WITH... (PAPER # 0424) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The extreme pressure properties were measured on a number of lithium complex thickened grease samples in the Four-Ball Extreme-Pressure Tester. The lithium complex grease samples were formulated with various levels of a bismuth naphthenate compound...
2002 - CALCIUM SULFONATE COMPLEX GREASE:THE NEXT GENERATION FOOD MACHINERY... (PAPER # 0221) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Calcium sulfonate complex grease is recognized as an excellent technology for grease applications where heat, water, and high or shock loads exist. Its inherent properties are well known and include excellent corrosion resistance, low wear and high...
2009 - DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE OVERBASED CALCI... (PAPER # 0901) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) As an alternative to calcium sulfonate complex grease, this paper reports the making and characterization of high performance overbased calcium oleate complex greases based on a novel high TBN calcium oleate grease precursor. FTIR and XRD were used...
2007 - THE DISCUSSION ON THE DIFFERENCE OF MECHANISM OF PREPARATION BETWEEN... (PAPER # 0711) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper, the effects on the dropping point of the lithium complex grease and the urea grease of the reaction temperature and preparation methods were researched. And the difference of mechanism of forming grease between the lithium complex grea...
2001 - INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME NEW COMPLEXING AGENTS IN LITHIUM... (PAPER # 0125) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium complex grease is one of the most versatile types of soap-based grease in industry today. The physical properties of lithium complex grease are controlled by numerous factors, an important one being the nature of the complexing agent. A wide...
2001 - THE 2000 NLGI ANNUAL GREASE SURVEY IN PLAIN ENGLISH (PAPER # 0130) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Verbal explanation of NLGI's 2000 Annual Survey
2002 - LITHIUM COMPLEX THICKENED GREASE SHOWS IMPROVED WATER RESISTANCE WIT... (PAPER # 0208) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Water washout characteristics and mechanical shear stability were investigated in a lithium complex thickened grease formulated with a bismuth carboxylate. Test results indicate that the water resistant properties of the lithium complex grease were...
2004 - RUBBER INTERACTIONS WITH GREASE AND BASE OIL (PAPER # 0416) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Interactions during aging between rubber and greases and their base oils have been studied. Two kinds of rubber, chloroprene rubber and nitrile butadiene rubber with a nitrile content of 28 %, and four base oils, three naphthenic oils with different...
2009 - DEVELOPMENT OF GREASES WITH EXTENDED GREASE AND BEARING LIFE USING... (PAPER # 0911) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Numerous factors impact the design of greases formulated to provide extended grease and bearing life. Not only is the choice of base oil and thickener important, but antagonistic relationships between the components in grease may occur when formulati...
2009 - GREASE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE EFFECTS ON NOISE LEVEL CHARACTE... (PAPER # 0917) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Approximately 90% of all bearings are lubricated with greases. The performances of both bearing and grease have been well associated in literature with the quiet running property of the grease. In the applications such as electric motors, automobile...
2007 - THE ROLE OF MODERN GREASE TECHNOLOGY IN THE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE... (PAPER # 0716) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Often ASTM and DIN test data are used in conjunction with grease product data sheets, engineering design criteria and assumptions (load, environment, temperature, and speed) to select a grease to be used in an application. While these considerations...
2005 - TO BI OR NOT TO BI.BISMUTH IN THE SOAP STRUCTURE (PAPER # 0521) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) For a number of years bismuth has been used as an oil soluble EP-additive in lubricating greases. By incorporating bismuth in the soap structure of the grease instead of having it in the oil phase the performance of the grease can be improved. Longer...
2004 - THE GREASE PENETRATION TEST METHOD - VILLAIN OR VICTIM? (PAPER # 0406) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In recent years, a number of papers presented at NLGI have highlighted deficiencies of the ubiquitous grease penetration test measurement. These criticisms have been sufficiently strident that their audiences and subsequent readers may have been left...
2000 - THE APPLICATION OF SEM AND AFM TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF GREASE... (PAPER # 0017) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) At present there is no ideal method available to characterise the physical structure of grease thickener systems. Grease is typically composed of a solid thickener phase physically dispersed in base oil and has structure properties at many different...
2005 - PUMPING NON-NEWTONIAN LUBRICANTS (GREASE) BY POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT... (PAPER # 0508) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) When pumping non-Newtonian fluids, knowing the relationship between the viscosity, temperature and shear rate is very important. At lower shear rate (fluid at rest) grease has higher viscosity, but it increases as motion commences. Higher viscosity...
2003 - DEVELOPMENT OF NEW UREA GREASE FOR STEEL CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINE... (PAPER # 0310) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Roller bearings in steel continuous casting machines operate at high temperatures and slow rotational speeds. Hence the lubrication regime of the roller/ raceway contact is boundary rather than full film and severe bearing wear can occur. To improve...
2006 - HIGH TEMPERATURE GREASES (PAPER # 0603) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) "High" is a relative term when characterizing tem-perature conditions.There are many criteria to considerwhen selecting a high-temperature grease for hotequipment moving elements lubricated with grease,for example,a bearing.The selection must inc...
2006 - DEVELOPMENT OF GREASE FOR CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINES - ACHIEVEMENT... (PAPER # 0613) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Continuous casting equipment (hereinafter called"CC") is the most important equipment that crucially affects the production capacity of steel plants.The first prerequisite for greases employed for bearings in CC is that they must not clog pipes...
2006 - STUDY OF SYNTHETIC FLUID BASED ALUMINUM COMPLEX GREASE (PAPER # 0627) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium complex thickened greases have historically been the thickener of choice for high performance, high viscosity, synthetic base fluid, industrial greases.With the careful selection of base fluids and performance additives; aluminum complex thic...
2005 - EVALUATION OF VARIOUS RAW MATERIALS OPTIONS FOR PRODUCING ALUMINUM... (PAPER # 0511) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Aluminum Complex greases represent a high performance grease type with specialized applications, which is steadily growing in widespread markets. Several options are available to the grease manufacturer regarding raw materials and manufacturing metho...
2003 - LOW NOISE GREASE EVALUATION; THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD (PAPER # 0321) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) It has long been observed that polyisobutylene (PIB) -based tackifiers are thermally unstable at temperatures well below their ceiling temperatures, temperatures that may be encountered in both service and manufacturing of high-temperature greases.
2002 - INVESTIGATION ON OXIDATION STABILITY OF DIUREA GREASE USING DSC (PAPER # 0203) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Oxidation stability (OS) of greases is one of the most important properties in the storage and use of the grease. The influences of several factors on the OS were investigated with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), such as the structure of the...
2000 - GREASE THE FINAL FRONTIER: FORECASTING THE ADDITIVE REQUIREMENTS IN... (PAPER # 0005) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the performance requirements of grease is driven by several external factors. Key to ensuring that lubrication needs are met is the co-evolution of appropriate additive chemistry. The following paper will present an overview of the...
2002 - INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF A GREASE-LUBRICATED ROLLING CONTACT (PAPER # 0212) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work, the composition of the grease lubricant film around a rolling contact has been examined using infrared reflectance microspectroscopy. Results have been compared with film thickness and 'out-of-contact' infrared microspectroscopy res...
2009 - USED OIL AND FERROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF GREASES (PAPER # 0916) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The application of greases in used grease analysis has commonly been overlooked. There are many reasons; the most general reason is that greases must be broken down before analysis can occur and this can affect the reproducibility of used grease...
2005 - COMPARING DIFFERENT ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR LUBRICATING GREASE... (PAPER # 0529) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Some of the key factors involved with oil degradation during machinery operation are the operating temperature, pressure and load. To monitor this degradation process in lubricating oils, the industry has defined specific test methods involving corre...
2002 - DEVELOPMENT OF NEW LUBRICATING GREASE FOR OUTER RING ROTATION BEARING (PAPER # 0204) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A new lubricating grease developed for automobile instrument and auxiliary bearing, especially outer ring rotation bearing. These bearings need long lubricating life, low noise characteristic at wide temperature range, rust preventive characteristics...
2007 - STUDY ON THE PREVENTION OF OIL DIFFUSION FROM FLUORINATED GREASE (PAPER # 0705) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In recent years, the use of fluorinated grease has been expanding in the field of precision instruments because of its excellent properties such as low torque at low temperature, heat resistance, low vapor pressure, plastic compatibility, ect. Partic...
2007 - SYNTHESIS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL (MR) GREASE (PAPER # 0726) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Magnetorheological (MR) fluids exhibit controllable flow properties. They have ability to change from a low viscous liquid state to high viscous semi solid or solid like state instantaneously upon application of magnetic field. This respons...
2000 - MODERN PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR A LUBRICATING GREASE PLANT (PAPER # 0028) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Kyodo Yushi's Kameyama Plant, the largest of its four factories (three in Japan and one in Singapore) and located in Mie, Japan, was put into operation in October, 1991. The plant has a monthly production capacity of 1,650 tons on an 8 hours per day,...
2005 - PROPERTIES OF TRIBOCHEMICAL FILMS FROM VARIOUS ADDITIVES IN GREASE... (PAPER # 0522) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A critical performance requirement that greases must provide to working parts of equipment is the protection of mating metal to metal surfaces under severe loading. Extreme pressure (EP) characteristics commonly refer to this type of performance prop...
1999 - STARTED LUBRICATION OF EHL CONTACTS - RELATIONSHIP TO BULK GREASE PR... (PAPER # 9904) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper the effect of grease composition (thickener type and concentration) on lubricant film thickness under starved conditions is investigated. Film thickness measurements have been made for a number of model greases made with the same base...
1999 - CHANGE OF GREASE CHARACTERISTICS TO THE END OF LUBRICATING LIFE (PAPER # 9902) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease characteristics (penetration, dropping point, residual base oil content, acid value of base oil, etc.) were examined as greases reached the end of lubricating life, the point of bearing seizure, when two type of roller bearings NU320 (inner...
2001 - THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE TYPE AND PURITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PAO BAS... (PAPER # 0113) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Poly alpha olefin grease was utilized to study the effect that graphite has on the wear characteristics and extreme pressure properties of this grease base. Neat PAO and PAO blends with each of four types of graphite were evaluated using ASTM 2596 an...
2007 - THE IMPACT OF POLYMERS BLENDED TO A TARGET VISCOSITY RANGE UPON BASE... (PAPER # 0717) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The paper expands upon how polymers impact base grease properties. The work emphasizes the impact of solid polymers in the liquid phase of grease versus some liquid component references by normalizing all of the data in common carrier oil in the liqu...
2006 - A DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT APPROACH TO DEVELOP A BETTER GREASE (PAPER # 0622) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease is a complex product consisting of soaps, thickeners, antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, corrosion inhibitors and antioxidants. Many of these ingredients can interact synergistically or antagonistically, resulting in a product...
2005 - VALIDATING NEW GREASE DEVELOPMENTS USING THE FAG FE-8 TEST RIG (PAPER # 0506) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The FAG FE 8 (roller bearing grease) test rig is a versatile test device for bearings and for lubricants. Lubricating greases (and lubricating oils) can be tested simulating almost all applications under the aspect of their friction and long-term...
2009 - PREDICTION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GREASE LIFE USING A DECOMPOSITION KIN... (PAPER # 0902) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A decomposition kinetic model was developed based on thermodynamic theory, first-order reaction law, and PDSC and modified TGA techniques. This kinetic model is able to predict grease degradation life at various temperatures using their activation en...
2001 - RELATIVE RATES OF GREASE OXIDATION IN A PEN STATE MICROOXIDATION APP... (PAPER # 0126) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The relative rates of grease oxidation in a Penn State Microoxidation apparatus on glass and on steel sample pans are compared and discussed. Two parameters which were tracked in each experiment; weight loss, and the amount of non-volatile polar mate...
2008 - DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE LI COMPLEX GREASE WITHOUT USING AD... (PAPER # 0815) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper reports the development of a high performance Li complex grease without the use of heavy metal containing additives. Three ASTM tests were used as metrics for this high performance development. Seven additive components and three full comm...
2008 - STREAMLINED GREASE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION OF WEAR, (PAPER # 0811) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Oil analysis is well established as a routine tool to optimize maintenance activities, improve reliability and equipment life and prevent component failures. As part of a comprehensive Predictive or Condition Based Maintenance program, lubricant...
2004 - DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT GREASE WITH IMPROVED ROLLING... (PAPER # 0409) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the requirements in CVJ (Constant velocity Joint) is to prevent a flaking (rolling contact fatigue). In this paper described that we estimated occurrence mechanism of flaking, verified the flaking mechanism by use of a bench tester and proceed...
2006 - DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE GREASE FOR TRACTION MOTOR BEARING... (PAPER # 0624) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Traction motors are being used to transmit power to wheels through Traction motors gears - pinion /wheel.To support the armature,its shaft rests on com-mutator and pinion end bearings and therefore the lubrication of these bearings is very importan...
2003 - THE LEON-MAXWELL EQUATION - A NOVEL APPROACH TO GREASE SELECTION AND... (PAPER # 0304) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Many facilities use several different greases. Many greases are not compatible leading to costly mis-application mistakes. There has been a concerted effort to minimize the number of greases used in a facility. This technique is known as lubricant co...
2003 - A NOVEL METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING LITHIUM SOAP GREASE IN STEAM HEATED... (PAPER # 0301) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A novel manufacturing method has been developed for the manufacture of lithium and lithium/calcium mixed soap greases in steam heated kettles with low shear mixers. The reasons for the success of the process and the properties of the resulting grease...
2008 - THE EFFECT OF BORON ADDITIVES IN GREASE ON FRETTING WEAR (PAPER # 0818) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Boric acid has been shown to reduce friction in bearing applications. One of the methods of reducing fretting wear is to decrease the friction between the contacting surfaces to allow them to slide more freely. Because boric acid reduces friction it...
2002 - SUCCESSFUL CREATION OF A GREASE PILOT PLANT: BLOOD, SWEAT, AND SOME... (PAPER # 0222) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The installation of a pilot plant based on a contactor manufacturing system requires a considerable amount of expense in terms of equipment and time. After initial purchase, management must support the continuation of funding for process development...
2005 - AIRCRAFT GREASES - EXPECTATIONS, REQUIREMENTS, AREAS OF EFFECT (PAPER # 0527) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A brief explanation, for Grease Manufacturers & Chemists, of the environments in which aircraft greases are used and what is required of them. (Slides)...
2004 - NON-DEPLETING ANTIOXIDANTS FOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE GREASES (PAPER # 0408) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) For modern grease formulations long term performance is a critical requirement since premature aging leads to additional maintenance cost. It is also expected that greases maintain their resistance against thermo-oxidation over long periods of time.
2002 - ADVANCED LUBRICANTS BASED ON MULTIPLY ALKYLATED CYCLOPENTANE, POLYPH... (PAPER # 0209) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Advanced lubricants based on multiply alkylated cyclopentane, polyphenylether, and silahydrocarbon is a technical presentation discussing the chemical and physical properties of these synthetic fluids and grease made with them. A brief discussion fol...
2003 - LUBRICATING GREASES PROPERTIES AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION ESPECIALLY... (PAPER # 0302) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Introduction - Lubricating Grease Market: Importance of Synthetic Greases - Structure and Composition of Lubricating Greases - Thickener and Base Fluids for Synthetic Greases: Their Advantages and Disadvantages - Classification and Standardiz...
2004 - APPLICATION OF FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN PROCESSING... (PAPER # 0428) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This thesis is on the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in processing Lithium Complex grease, and the trend using FT-IR to observe and judge the structure varying of thickener during processing.
2007 - DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD TESTING OF A HEAVY DUTY SYNTHETIC POLYUREA GRE... (PAPER # 0706) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In a sugar beet processing plant, high loads and very high temperatures are encountered in the pelleting press and the steam dryer, respectively. Spherical roller bearings in these applications require a grease with excellent high temperatu...
2006 - ENERGY SAVINGS STUDY: LUBRICATING RAILROAD TANGENT TRACK WITH SOY-BASED... (PAPER # 0605) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Traditionally,curves in railroad tracks are greased toreduce friction and equipment wear.The purpose ofthis study was to investigate energy (fuel) savings as aresult of greasing tracks using an environmentallyfriendly grease.