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10 Trends Shaping Tomorrow's Tribology STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Issues like rising equipment temperatures, increased demands on fluid life and a rapidly changing feedstock landscape raise the question as to whether today’s lubricant technology will be able to satisfy future applications—whether technology can keep pac...view more Issues like rising equipment temperatures, increased demands on fluid life and a rapidly changing feedstock landscape raise the question as to whether today’s lubricant technology will be able to satisfy future applications—whether technology can keep pace with new realities. view less
11th Anual CMF Plus STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) When it comes to advancing your career and upgrading your technical knowledge, STLE’s Annual Meeting & Exhibition is a unique event in the lubricants industry. 1,200 of your peers in the lubricants community are expected to participate in STLE’s 69th Annu...view more When it comes to advancing your career and upgrading your technical knowledge, STLE’s Annual Meeting & Exhibition is a unique event in the lubricants industry. 1,200 of your peers in the lubricants community are expected to participate in STLE’s 69th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Please join us in Lake Buena Vista from May 18-22, 2014 for a unique experience that blends the best of industry education, technical training, professional certification and new technologies. view less
14th Annual CMF Plus STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) The industry’s most innovative companies recap key presentations from STLE’s 2016 Commercial Marketing Forum.
1999 - A NEW COMPRESSIONAL RHEOMETER FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VISCOELASTICITY (PAPER # 9936) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A new low-cost rheometer is described which can give accurate absolute measurements of shear viscoelastic parameters i.e. G' (storage modulus) and G" (loss modulus) etc. The device uses a compressional mode of deformation and is typically fitted with...
1999 - A STUDY OF TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM OF LITHIUM SOAP GREASES.. (PAPER # 9910) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Our company has been manufacturing lithium soap greases based on polyolester for thirty years, and has many kinds of greases. In these greases "Mul temp SRL" is one of the most excellent greases that has been developed. "Mul temp SRL" has several exc...
1999 - A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF DIUREA GREASES BY FERROGRAPHY ANALYSIS (PAPER # 9923) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Recently ferrography analysis, known to separate the wear particles from used lubricants, is used to get important information on the operation of machines in various industrial fields. However, it is said that there are many differences in the resul...
1999 - AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PERFORMANCE OF GREASE ADDITIVES AS RELATED... (PAPER # 9906) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the age-old rules of grease manufacturing is to insure grease additives are added at a temperature at or below 90 *C. This study investigates the variations in performance of additives incorporated at 90 *C and 120 *C. The base grease used is...
1999 - ASSESSING THE CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF LUBRICATING BASE OILS (PAPER # 9913) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Fossil fuel-derived materials were the first substances recognized as carcinogenic in animal studies. Extensive analysis revealed that their carcinogenicity was mediated by a class of compounds, or PACs. Subsequent epidemiology studies showed that...
1999 - CHANGE OF GREASE CHARACTERISTICS TO THE END OF LUBRICATING LIFE (PAPER # 9902) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease characteristics (penetration, dropping point, residual base oil content, acid value of base oil, etc.) were examined as greases reached the end of lubricating life, the point of bearing seizure, when two type of roller bearings NU320 (inner...
1999 - CHARACTERISATION OF GREASE LUBRICANT FILMS (PAPER # 9924) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The nature of the lubricant film; its chemical composition, structure and adherence, plays an important role in the lubrication process. There have been many studies in fluid film lubrication where the composition of the surface films has been analys...
1999 - CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT GREASES (PAPER # 9903) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Constant velocity joints (CVJs), as used to transmit torque in the drivelines of automobiles and light trucks are complex systems and demanding in their lubrication requirements. This paper explains some of the tribology of CVJs and describes the...
1999 - DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALL-WEATHER TRACTOR HYDRAULIC FLUID (PAPER # 9935) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Tractor hydraulic fluid is an all-purpose lubricant designed for hydraulic, transmission, axle, and wet brake systems on farm tractors and construction equipment. The viscosity requirements of current fluids fall into two major categories: one for us...
1999 - FIELD RESULTS OF SOYBEAN BASED GREASESS DEVELOPED BY THE UNIVERSITY... (PAPER # 9908) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The University of Northern Iowa's Ag-Based Industrial Lubricants (UNI/ABIL) Research Program has targeted greases as leading applications for broader integration of soybean oil into industrial lubricant markets. The improved biodegradability and toxi...
1999 - FROM BLACK TO WHITE - PROBLEM SOLVING FOR HEAVY LOAD APPLICATIONS (PAPER # 9937) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Brief description of topic Heavy load applications are often lubricated with solid lubricants containing greases. The paper will focus on further development of solid free alternatives based on lithium-calcium complex thickener. Results are shown...
1999 - FUNCTIONALIZED POLYMER (FP) ADDITIZED GREASES - PART 1 BEARING AND... (PAPER # 9911) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The analytic and bearing performance results of a series of greases blended with and without a polymeric additive will be presented in Part 1. In all, five fully blended Li-complex based greases were tested in this work. Pre and post-test analytical...
1999 - FUNCTIONALIZED POLYMER (FP) ADDITIZED GREASES - PART 2 RHEOLOGICAL... (PAPER # 9912) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The paper titled; "FP Additized Greases - Part 2: Rheological Test Development and Correlation", extends rheological test methods utilizing controlled stress rheometry to characterize five fully blended Li complex greases evaluated in Part 1 in a KRL...
1999 - GREASE BASED LUBRICANT: MIST-FREE ROCKDRILL LUBRICATION (PAPER # 9918) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The product is a semi-fluid grease which is specifically formulated for mist-free operation in pneumatic rockdrills or similar mine drilling equipment and meets the specifications of the equipment manufacturers. This product provides a more productiv...
1999 - INFLUENCE OF GROUP II & III BASE OIL COMPOSITION ON V.I. AND OXIDATI... (PAPER # 9907) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Group II and III lubricating base oils are high quality oils containing less than 10% aromatics and less than 300 ppm sulfur as defined by API publication 1509. Group II and III base oils made using a hydrocracking/ISODE-WAXING*/ hydrofinishing catal...
1999 - LUBRICATION OF WHEEL ENDS IN TRACTORS AND TRAILERS (PAPER # 9931) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A controversy has been growing lately - especially last year - on wheel-end lubrication. Lubricant related failure of outer bearings that led to a series of incidents which caused alarm in the industry. Reportedly, a number of trailers suffered wheel...
1999 - MANUFACTURE OF BIODEGRADABLE NONTOXIC LUBRICATING GREASES (PAPER # 9919) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The challenges of developing and successfully marketing a Biodegradable Nontoxic lubricating grease are not limited to the identification and selection of base fluid (natural vegetable oil, synthetic ester, polyols, etc.), addititive package (non-tox...
1999 - MULTI-TASKING MANUFACTURING AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MATERIALS DISPE... (PAPER # 9916) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) At the turn of the twentieth century, Oldsmobile pioneered manufacturing by creating the assembly line. Twenty years later, Ford Motor Company perfected it. That concept has proven successful for over 100 years. As the 21st century nears, the assembl...
1999 - NEW GLOBAL AEROSPACE GREASE SAE AMS-M AEROSPACE GREASE CORE SPECIFIC... (PAPER # 9926) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The SAE-Aerospace committee was formed in 1997 with the intention of consolidating different Aerospace greases' specifications. During the ELGI in Islo, June 1999, this committee completed the new Aerospace grease specifications. The new specificatio...
1999 - NEW SOLID LUBRICANTS AS ADDITIVE FOR GREASES - 'POLARISED GRAPHITE' (PAPER # 9933) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Among the large number of lubricant additives, the group of solid lubricants presents a supplement to metalorganic compounds. Their effectiveness is not dependent on a reaction temperature, but rather specific pressure to form a film in the...
1999 - NLGI REFERENCE GREASES - 1999 UPDATE (PAPER # 9921) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) NLGI introduced reference greases as a service to the grease industry in 1966. A number of changes and upgrades of these greases have occurred over the years. This paper presents the latest information on these industry reference materials.
1999 - PHOSPHORUS FREE ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVES IN GEAR OILS (PAPER # 9915) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The lubricant industry is constantly improving its formulations toreduce the presence of potentially corrosive, environmentally unacceptable, toxic, or unstable ingredients. Phosphorus compounds, used for their outstanding anti-wear properties, may...
1999 - REQUIREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE GREASES ACCORDING TO ... (PAPER # 9928) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Environmental and toxicological aspects are of increasing importance for new and improved grease formulations. In some applications, environmental aspects have to be regarded as the dominant factor for marketing. The paper will describe the current...
1999 - SAPONIFICATION FOR LITHIUM GREASE MADE EASIER (PAPER # 9932) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper reviews several ways that current grease makes saponify lithium hydroxide monohydrate. A new method has been developed using a treated lithium hydroxide monohydrate which is completely soluble. This makes the saponification step react more...
1999 - SCREENING FOR THE BIODEGRADATION POTENTIAL OF LUBRICANT ADDITIVES (PAPER # 9927) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) To fully achieve a lubricant package with a high degree of biodegradability, it makes sense that the modifying additives also be susceptible to breakdown in the environment. This challenge confronts the manufacturers and suppliers of these additives.
1999 - SEVERELY HYDROTREATED AND ISO-DEWAXED SPECIALTY BASESTOCKS (PAPER # 9920) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The performance demands of newer equipment designs in both the automotive and industrial market places, combined with more stringent environmental regulations, has placed a challenge squarely on the shoulders of basestock manufacturers and additive...
1999 - SPILLING THE BEANS ABOUT CASTOR OIL AND ITS DERIVATIVES (PAPER # 9905) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Castor oil, a unique 18 carbon fatty acid, is a multi faceted renewable resource. This presentation will explore some of the issues of supply and the wide range applications of the reacted products in the industrial chemical and lubricant markets.
1999 - STARTED LUBRICATION OF EHL CONTACTS - RELATIONSHIP TO BULK GREASE PR... (PAPER # 9904) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper the effect of grease composition (thickener type and concentration) on lubricant film thickness under starved conditions is investigated. Film thickness measurements have been made for a number of model greases made with the same base...
1999 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED CONTACT LUBRICANT BASED ON A SIX RING... (PAPER # 9929) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the most difficult tribological problems is the successful lubrication of electrical connectors. In addition to reducing insertion forces, connector lubricants must prevent fretting corrosion of non-noble metal contacts, be relatively...
1999 - THE EFFECTS OF RUST INHIBITORS ON GREASE PROPERTIES (PAPER # 9922) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A 1998 paper by the same authors focused on a comparison of three ASTM grease rust tests: ASTM D 1743, the traditional static rust test in the U.S. which uses distilled water; ASTM D 5969, introduced in 1966 to include the use of synthetic sea water...
1999 - TWENTY FIRST CENTURY MILITARY BIODEGRADABLE GREASES (PAPER # 9901) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based hydrocarbons, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often as a consequence of leakage, accidental spills,...
20 Minutes With... Dr. Susan Gardner STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Klüber Lubrication North America’s regional R&D chemist discusses strategies that companies can employ to successfully develop and market lubricant products.
20 Minutes With... Jay Bickett STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Jay Bickett is the PAO global business manager for Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP in The Woodlands, Texas, where he has worked since 2002. His primary responsibilities involve managing the company’s global PAO business and marketing of their metallo...view more Jay Bickett is the PAO global business manager for Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP in The Woodlands, Texas, where he has worked since 2002. His primary responsibilities involve managing the company’s global PAO business and marketing of their metallocene polyalphaolefin (mPAO) products. view less
20 Minutes With... Michael Forgeron STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) The president and CEO of Analysts, Inc., discusses how future challenges in the oil analysis industry will impact end-users of commercial services.
20 Minutes With... Mike Gust STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) A veteran engineer with experience in industry and academia discusses the future of hydraulic system design and application.
20 Minutes With...Dr. Puliyur Madhavan STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This Pall Corp. researcher with experience in filtration technology discusses the future of aerospace fluid systems.
20 Minutes With...John M. Burke STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Leading an interdisciplinary team of scientists, this STLE and ILMA member helped develop a groundbreaking test method for measuring VOCs in metalworking fluids.
20 Minutes With...Kim Stelson STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) The director of CCEFP discusses the huge technical and societal benefits to be gained by continued research into fluid power.
20 Minutes With…: Dr. Jack Zakarian STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Nicknamed the ‘The Gear Doctor,’ this new-product specialist examines trends involving energy efficiency in the gear-oil industry.
20 Minutes With…Chris Napoleon STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This new-product specialist develops inspection and testing programs to evaluate bearing quality.
20 Minutes With…Derek Phillips STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Keep rust and corrosion from crippling your productivity by following the advice of this product-development specialist.
20 Minutes with Bridget Crocker STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This product-development specialist explains how to maximize the benefi ts of additives while reducing the costs to operate them.
20 Minutes with... Capt. Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This mechanical engineer turned astronaut lubricated a balky mechanism on the International Space Station—while spacewalking 250 miles above Earth.
20 Minutes with... Dr. Michael Khonsari STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Mike Khonsari is the Dow Chemical Endowed Chair in rotating machinery, professor in the department of mechanical and industrial engineering and the founding director of the Center for Rotating Machinery (CeRoM) at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge...view more Mike Khonsari is the Dow Chemical Endowed Chair in rotating machinery, professor in the department of mechanical and industrial engineering and the founding director of the Center for Rotating Machinery (CeRoM) at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, La. This well-known researcher discusses the future development of a comprehensive and unified model of friction and wear. view less
20 Minutes with...Capt. Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This mechanical engineer turned astronaut lubricated a balky mechanism on the International Space Station—while spacewalking 250 miles above Earth.
20 Minutes with...Charles A. Gay STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This 30-year training veteran and senior data analyst discusses strategies in testing and interpreting oil samples.
20 Minutes with...Colby Austin STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) The engineering manager for Napoleon Engineering Services discusses the complexities of bearing testing and the advantages of source qualification inspections.
20 Minutes with...Dr. Don Smolenski STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This Evonik manager (and self-described car nut) discusses lubrication’s changing role in conserving resources in transportation and industrial applications.
20 Minutes with...Kevin Harrington STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) ExxonMobil Chemical’s global alliance manager for synthetic fluids and lubricant basestocks discusses the challenges of developing new industrial lubricants.
20 Minutes with...Wayne Mackwood STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) Chemtura’s grease and detergents technology manager discusses the future development of calcium sulfonate complex greases and their use in different industrial applications.
20 Minutes with…Dr. Martin Webster STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This ExxonMobil researcher and his team are using the latest technology to develop next-generation lubricants.
20 Minutes with…Raymond Thibault STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This former high-school chemistry teacher is now a world-renowned instructor providing lubrication-training opportunities for industry professionals and end-users.
20 Minutes with…Richard Butler STLE (Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers) This Certified Metalworking Fluids Specialist explains the role of MWFs and spectroscopic instrumentation used in the condition monitoring of fluids.
2000 - A FEW INSIGHTS INTO GREASE TESTING (PAPER # 0019) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) What we all know about our products we learned from testing. Laboratory tests are used for research and development, quality control, and to determine the chemical and physical properties of greases and oils. Although various standards organizations...
2000 - A REVIEW OF THE MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS, METAL DEACTIVA... (PAPER # 0002) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Manufacturers of lubricating greases employ additives to meet industry and specification requirements currently in effect in this market sector. Antioxidants, metal deactivators, and corrosion inhibitors play a very important role in meeting these pe...
2000 - AN UNCONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO LOW TEMPERATURE GREASE (PAPER # 0009) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Greases manufactured for use in low to extremely low temperature climates have typically been formulated using polyalphaolefin or other costly synthetic basestocks. This has been primarily due to the fact that traditional mineral oil basestocks have...
2000 - ASHLESS RUST INHIBITORS FOR GREASES (PAPER # 0018) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Recent work has focused on the advantages of combining metal salt rust inhibitor chemistries to improve rust prevention in greases. This paper discusses the various ashless chemistries employed as rust inhibitors and presents the results of a systema...
2000 - CHLORINATED PARAFFINS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL AND... (PAPER # 0024) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a family of complex mixtures that have been widely used through industry for over the past forty years. The three main categories of CPs are described by their carbon chain lengths: short-chain (10-13 carbons), medium...
2000 - DEVELOPMENT OF A KEY LIFE TEST TO PREDICT AUTOMOTIVE BALL JOINT WEAR... (PAPER # 0008) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper summarizes the findings of a series of tribological tests performed on the internal design components of an automotive, lubricated-for-life, suspension/steering ball joint assembly. The objective of the study was to develop a new key life...
2000 - DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW OXIDATION STABILITY TEST METHOD FOR LUBRICATING... (PAPER # 0027) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Oxidation stability is one of the most important properties of lubricating oils and is intended to predict their storage and service life. To assess this property, numerous test methods have been developed for the specified applications (i.e., engine...
2000 - EFFECT OF PTFE PARTICLE SIZE ON WEAR AND COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (PAPER # 0025) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) PTFE particles are believed to improve lubrication by modifying the surface of moving parts coming in contact during high-pressure occurrences (boundary conditions). Under adequate pressure, these particles are able to cold flow into the asperities...
2000 - FUEL ECONOMY CONSIDERATIONS OF MULTIGRADE AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBRICANTS (PAPER # 0016) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Abstract was unavailable at press time. Vasu Bala, PhD's (Chemical Engineering), Pennsylvania State University, 1988, 1992 and 1993. His research interest lies in high shear rheology, mechanics of elastrohydrodynamics and boundary lubrication, elect...
2000 - GREASE COMPATIBILITY REVISITED (PAPER # 0004) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) "To mix or not to mix." Grease compatibility is a vital subject in the grease industry especially with the end users. The issue of grease compatibility is important across the spectrum of applications where grease is used as a lubricant. Incompatibil...
2000 - GREASE SHELF LIFE, NEW BEGINNINGS (PAPER # 0010) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A brief historical perspective on grease shelf life as well as an update on the current NLGI - ELGI grease shelf life working group. Peter Drechsler, received a B.S. degree in Physical Science from Central Connecticut State University. He has been...
2000 - GREASE THE FINAL FRONTIER: FORECASTING THE ADDITIVE REQUIREMENTS IN... (PAPER # 0005) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the performance requirements of grease is driven by several external factors. Key to ensuring that lubrication needs are met is the co-evolution of appropriate additive chemistry. The following paper will present an overview of the...
2000 - KNOW YOUR PLANT CAPACITY (PAPER # 0012) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper provides a summary of one method for evaluating grease plant operations. When adding new products to the product slate, introducing a new family of greases, or, simply, increasing production due to increased requirements, an objective...
2000 - LUBRICATING GREASES FROM PREFORMED SOAPS (PAPER # 0014) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease makers have always considered that it was more economical for them to make their own soaps in situ when making lubricating greases than purchasing preformed soaps. That may have been true in many instances, but perhaps this concept should be...
2000 - MODERN PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR A LUBRICATING GREASE PLANT (PAPER # 0028) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Kyodo Yushi's Kameyama Plant, the largest of its four factories (three in Japan and one in Singapore) and located in Mie, Japan, was put into operation in October, 1991. The plant has a monthly production capacity of 1,650 tons on an 8 hours per day,...
2000 - NEXT GENERATION LONG LIFE POLYUREA GREASES (PAPER # 0023) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Paper will discuss new advances in Polyurea technology highlighting improvements and key features including extended life, shear stability and compatibility. T. Tim Nadasti, PhD (Inorganic chemistry), University of Windsor. Currently working as...
2000 - PERFORMANCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYBEAN-BASED GREASES THICKENED... (PAPER # 0011) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Using oils from conventional and genetically modified soybeans, greases were developed using clay, Aluminum Complex and Lithium Complex. This paper will report on performance and characteristics of these greases. Dr. Lou Honary, is a tenured Associa...
2000 - POLYUREA GREASES - PART 1: TAPERED BEARING PERFORMANCE CORRELATION... (PAPER # 0006) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work we will attempt to establish a correlation between bearing performance and rheological responses of a series of greases. We will use various analytical techniques to monitor the behavior of these greases before during and after the perfo...
2000 - POLYUREA GREASES - PART 2: RHEOLOGICAL CORRELATION STUDY (PAPER # 0007) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work we will attempt to establish a correlation between bearing performance and rheological responses of a series of greases. We will use various analytical techniques to monitor the behavior of these greases before during and after the perfo...
2000 - THE APPLICATION OF SEM AND AFM TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF GREASE... (PAPER # 0017) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) At present there is no ideal method available to characterise the physical structure of grease thickener systems. Grease is typically composed of a solid thickener phase physically dispersed in base oil and has structure properties at many different...
2000 - THE FUTURE OF PUBLISHING FOR THE LUBRICANTS / GREASE INDUSTRY (PAPER # 0026) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Discussion of e-publishing, e-commerce and the use of the web to communicate information about lubricants and greases to users and customers. Diane Green, BS (Chemical Engineering) Villanova University. Currently the Publisher of Lubricants World...
2000 - THE NSF INTERNATIONAL NONFOOD COMPOUNDS REGISTRATION PROGRAM REPLACE... (PAPER # 0021) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In 198, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) discontinued its popular authorization program for Proprietary Substances and Nonfood Compounds that covered more than 6000 companies and 100,000 product names. NSF International responded to...
2001 - 'FRICTIONLESS' OPEN GEAR LUBRICANT (PAPER # 0109) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Should the load carrying capacity along with the anti wear protection remain the most desirable characteristics in an open gear lubricant? Should the component life always be strongly associated with these two properties and less so with the friction...
2001 - A STATUS REPORT ON PROMOTING THE USE OF BIOBASED LUBRICANTS MADE OF... (PAPER # 0102) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has coined the term BIOBASED to avoid controversies associated with the term biodegradable, as well as to create a starting point for these products to enter the market. While not fully approved by...
2001 - DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS VELOCITY JOINT, CVJ, TEST STAND TO ASSESS... (PAPER # 0118) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The thermal response and performance of a series of greases were conducted with a newly designed CVJ rig. This rig was engineered to use any commercially available CVJ. Both polyurea and Li based greases were selected for this work. A drive cycle bas...
2001 - ENHANCED PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBRICANTS (PAPER # 0131) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper highlights enhanced properties desired in automotive gear lubricants. Properties often desired by automotive and axle manufacturers include collective improvements in fuel economy, gear-bearing fatigue durability, shear stability,...
2001 - FOOD-GRADE LUBRICANTS AND GREASES: A NEW WORLD ORDER (PAPER # 0104) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper will review the changing global regulatory environment for food processing and will discuss the effect of these changes on the lubricant and grease industry. Until September 1998 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conjunctio...
2001 - FUTURE DIRECTIONS: EVALUATION OF GREASES FORMULATED WITH FUNCTIONALI... (PAPER # 0119) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The low temperature rheology and bearing performance of a series of grease lubricated bearings. Both polyurea and Li based greases were selected for this work. The rheological study was conducted from room temperature to -10°C. Both ASTM D4693 an...
2001 - IMPROVING PROFITABILITY USING ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT IN LUBRICANT... (PAPER # 0101) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The lubricant business consists of thousands of SKU's and multiple manufacturing processes. The high degree of complexity involved in the number of products and packaging combinations makes it nearly impossible for current accounting systems to ref...
2001 - INTERACTIONS OF A ZINC DITHIOPHOSPHATE WITH LITHIUM 12-HYDROXYSTEARA... (PAPER # 0106) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Greases based on lithium 12-hydroxystearate are the most important and versatile soap-based products, accounting for about 50% of the domestic grease production. Zinc dithiophosphates are commonly used additives in lubricating greases. They are used...
2001 - INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME NEW COMPLEXING AGENTS IN LITHIUM... (PAPER # 0125) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium complex grease is one of the most versatile types of soap-based grease in industry today. The physical properties of lithium complex grease are controlled by numerous factors, an important one being the nature of the complexing agent. A wide...
2001 - INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM DISULPHIDE AND GRAPHITE... (PAPER # 0105) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The influence of molybdenum disulphide and graphite, in the range of 1-50%, on the load/wear properties of military grease XG-279 was demonstrated using four-ball test method IP 239. The molybdenum disulphide greases generally exhibited superior anti...
2001 - LITHIUM GREASES MADE SAFELY (PAPER # 0114) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Today about 65% of all greases produced are lithium greases. Making lithium greases requires the handling of the toxic lithium hydroxide monohydrate. There have been some modifications to this toxic material to reduce the hazards of handling it. These...
2001 - MANUFACTURING GREASE USING DRY TECHNOLOGY (PAPER # 0121) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) All lubricating greases consist of two primary ingredients. A base fluid which is the major component and which also provides most of the lubrication function. The other component is the thickener, which serves to immobilize the fluid. The choice of...
2001 - PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF GREASES FOR SPACE MECHANISMS USING A VACUUM... (PAPER # 0111) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) IMost currently used greases for space applications are based on perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPE) and multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) oils. Evaluation of the greases includes outgassing properties, rheological behavior, and particularly the abil...
2001 - PROPER GREASE SELECTION REDUCES STEAM VALVE MAINTENANCE (PAPER # 0123) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The proper lubrication of motor operated valves (MOVs), used throughout the nuclear power generating industry to control the flow of steam, has been the focus of several ongoing and lengthy studies. The search for one grease that can properly...
2001 - RELATIVE RATES OF GREASE OXIDATION IN A PEN STATE MICROOXIDATION APP... (PAPER # 0126) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The relative rates of grease oxidation in a Penn State Microoxidation apparatus on glass and on steel sample pans are compared and discussed. Two parameters which were tracked in each experiment; weight loss, and the amount of non-volatile polar mate...
2001 - SECONDARY CONTAINMENT OPTIONS FOR ABOVEGROUND AND UNDERGROUND STORAG... (PAPER # 0115) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Around 1990, tank owners began to consider alternative options for the storage of hazardous liquids besides underground storage tanks. One option was to store product in shop-fabricated aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Because of the public's grea...
2001 - SLIDE CAM COMPOUND GREASE LUBRICANT: DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION (PAPER # 0122) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the cam and slide compound type lubricants have undergone many changes in the last several years especially since the ban on chlorinated solvents came into effect in 1995. Several new grease based, solvent-free slide cam lubricants,...
2001 - TAIL OIL-DERIVED STEARIC ACID AS THE THICKENER PRECURSOR FOR THE MAN... (PAPER # 0129) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Various types of stearic acid have been used as thickener precursors for the manufacture of greases. These greases include calcium-, aluminum-, and lithium-based products. A survey of the performance of selected stearic acids as the thickener precurs...
2001 - THE 2000 NLGI ANNUAL GREASE SURVEY IN PLAIN ENGLISH (PAPER # 0130) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Verbal explanation of NLGI's 2000 Annual Survey
2001 - THE EFFECT OF FRICTION MODIFIER ADDITIVES ON CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT... (PAPER # 0127) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In a previous NLGI annual meeting paper presented in Tucson in 1999, constant velocity joints (CVJs), as used to transmit torque in the drivelines of cars and light trucks, and the greases used to lubricate them were described in general terms. As...
2001 - THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE TYPE AND PURITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PAO BAS... (PAPER # 0113) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Poly alpha olefin grease was utilized to study the effect that graphite has on the wear characteristics and extreme pressure properties of this grease base. Neat PAO and PAO blends with each of four types of graphite were evaluated using ASTM 2596 an...
2001 - THE NSF INTERNATIONAL NONFOOD COMPOUNDS REGISTRATION AND LISTING PRO... (PAPER # 0108) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Since 1999, the NSF Nonfood Compounds Registration Program, a replacement of the USDA authorization program for proprietary substances and nonfood compounds, has received overwhelming response from the lubricants industry. This manuscript summarizes...