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NLGI – the National Lubricating Grease Institute – is a non-profit trade association comprised of chiefly of manufacturers and marketers of lubricating grease. Membership is assigned to companies and organizations, rather than to individuals. NLGI aims to circulate quality development and engineering information in order to aid manufacturers and yield superior products for consumers.
1999 - A NEW COMPRESSIONAL RHEOMETER FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VISCOELASTICITY (PAPER # 9936) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A new low-cost rheometer is described which can give accurate absolute measurements of shear viscoelastic parameters i.e. G' (storage modulus) and G" (loss modulus) etc. The device uses a compressional mode of deformation and is typically fitted with...
1999 - A STUDY OF TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM OF LITHIUM SOAP GREASES.. (PAPER # 9910) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Our company has been manufacturing lithium soap greases based on polyolester for thirty years, and has many kinds of greases. In these greases "Mul temp SRL" is one of the most excellent greases that has been developed. "Mul temp SRL" has several exc...
1999 - A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF DIUREA GREASES BY FERROGRAPHY ANALYSIS (PAPER # 9923) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Recently ferrography analysis, known to separate the wear particles from used lubricants, is used to get important information on the operation of machines in various industrial fields. However, it is said that there are many differences in the resul...
1999 - AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PERFORMANCE OF GREASE ADDITIVES AS RELATED... (PAPER # 9906) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the age-old rules of grease manufacturing is to insure grease additives are added at a temperature at or below 90 *C. This study investigates the variations in performance of additives incorporated at 90 *C and 120 *C. The base grease used is...
1999 - ASSESSING THE CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF LUBRICATING BASE OILS (PAPER # 9913) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Fossil fuel-derived materials were the first substances recognized as carcinogenic in animal studies. Extensive analysis revealed that their carcinogenicity was mediated by a class of compounds, or PACs. Subsequent epidemiology studies showed that...
1999 - CHANGE OF GREASE CHARACTERISTICS TO THE END OF LUBRICATING LIFE (PAPER # 9902) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease characteristics (penetration, dropping point, residual base oil content, acid value of base oil, etc.) were examined as greases reached the end of lubricating life, the point of bearing seizure, when two type of roller bearings NU320 (inner...
1999 - CHARACTERISATION OF GREASE LUBRICANT FILMS (PAPER # 9924) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The nature of the lubricant film; its chemical composition, structure and adherence, plays an important role in the lubrication process. There have been many studies in fluid film lubrication where the composition of the surface films has been analys...
1999 - CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT GREASES (PAPER # 9903) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Constant velocity joints (CVJs), as used to transmit torque in the drivelines of automobiles and light trucks are complex systems and demanding in their lubrication requirements. This paper explains some of the tribology of CVJs and describes the...
1999 - DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALL-WEATHER TRACTOR HYDRAULIC FLUID (PAPER # 9935) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Tractor hydraulic fluid is an all-purpose lubricant designed for hydraulic, transmission, axle, and wet brake systems on farm tractors and construction equipment. The viscosity requirements of current fluids fall into two major categories: one for us...
1999 - FIELD RESULTS OF SOYBEAN BASED GREASESS DEVELOPED BY THE UNIVERSITY... (PAPER # 9908) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The University of Northern Iowa's Ag-Based Industrial Lubricants (UNI/ABIL) Research Program has targeted greases as leading applications for broader integration of soybean oil into industrial lubricant markets. The improved biodegradability and toxi...
1999 - FROM BLACK TO WHITE - PROBLEM SOLVING FOR HEAVY LOAD APPLICATIONS (PAPER # 9937) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Brief description of topic Heavy load applications are often lubricated with solid lubricants containing greases. The paper will focus on further development of solid free alternatives based on lithium-calcium complex thickener. Results are shown...
1999 - FUNCTIONALIZED POLYMER (FP) ADDITIZED GREASES - PART 1 BEARING AND... (PAPER # 9911) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The analytic and bearing performance results of a series of greases blended with and without a polymeric additive will be presented in Part 1. In all, five fully blended Li-complex based greases were tested in this work. Pre and post-test analytical...
1999 - FUNCTIONALIZED POLYMER (FP) ADDITIZED GREASES - PART 2 RHEOLOGICAL... (PAPER # 9912) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The paper titled; "FP Additized Greases - Part 2: Rheological Test Development and Correlation", extends rheological test methods utilizing controlled stress rheometry to characterize five fully blended Li complex greases evaluated in Part 1 in a KRL...
1999 - GREASE BASED LUBRICANT: MIST-FREE ROCKDRILL LUBRICATION (PAPER # 9918) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The product is a semi-fluid grease which is specifically formulated for mist-free operation in pneumatic rockdrills or similar mine drilling equipment and meets the specifications of the equipment manufacturers. This product provides a more productiv...
1999 - INFLUENCE OF GROUP II & III BASE OIL COMPOSITION ON V.I. AND OXIDATI... (PAPER # 9907) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Group II and III lubricating base oils are high quality oils containing less than 10% aromatics and less than 300 ppm sulfur as defined by API publication 1509. Group II and III base oils made using a hydrocracking/ISODE-WAXING*/ hydrofinishing catal...
1999 - LUBRICATION OF WHEEL ENDS IN TRACTORS AND TRAILERS (PAPER # 9931) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A controversy has been growing lately - especially last year - on wheel-end lubrication. Lubricant related failure of outer bearings that led to a series of incidents which caused alarm in the industry. Reportedly, a number of trailers suffered wheel...
1999 - MANUFACTURE OF BIODEGRADABLE NONTOXIC LUBRICATING GREASES (PAPER # 9919) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The challenges of developing and successfully marketing a Biodegradable Nontoxic lubricating grease are not limited to the identification and selection of base fluid (natural vegetable oil, synthetic ester, polyols, etc.), addititive package (non-tox...
1999 - MULTI-TASKING MANUFACTURING AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MATERIALS DISPE... (PAPER # 9916) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) At the turn of the twentieth century, Oldsmobile pioneered manufacturing by creating the assembly line. Twenty years later, Ford Motor Company perfected it. That concept has proven successful for over 100 years. As the 21st century nears, the assembl...
1999 - NEW GLOBAL AEROSPACE GREASE SAE AMS-M AEROSPACE GREASE CORE SPECIFIC... (PAPER # 9926) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The SAE-Aerospace committee was formed in 1997 with the intention of consolidating different Aerospace greases' specifications. During the ELGI in Islo, June 1999, this committee completed the new Aerospace grease specifications. The new specificatio...
1999 - NEW SOLID LUBRICANTS AS ADDITIVE FOR GREASES - 'POLARISED GRAPHITE' (PAPER # 9933) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Among the large number of lubricant additives, the group of solid lubricants presents a supplement to metalorganic compounds. Their effectiveness is not dependent on a reaction temperature, but rather specific pressure to form a film in the...
1999 - NLGI REFERENCE GREASES - 1999 UPDATE (PAPER # 9921) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) NLGI introduced reference greases as a service to the grease industry in 1966. A number of changes and upgrades of these greases have occurred over the years. This paper presents the latest information on these industry reference materials.
1999 - PHOSPHORUS FREE ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVES IN GEAR OILS (PAPER # 9915) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The lubricant industry is constantly improving its formulations toreduce the presence of potentially corrosive, environmentally unacceptable, toxic, or unstable ingredients. Phosphorus compounds, used for their outstanding anti-wear properties, may...
1999 - REQUIREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE GREASES ACCORDING TO ... (PAPER # 9928) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Environmental and toxicological aspects are of increasing importance for new and improved grease formulations. In some applications, environmental aspects have to be regarded as the dominant factor for marketing. The paper will describe the current...
1999 - SAPONIFICATION FOR LITHIUM GREASE MADE EASIER (PAPER # 9932) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper reviews several ways that current grease makes saponify lithium hydroxide monohydrate. A new method has been developed using a treated lithium hydroxide monohydrate which is completely soluble. This makes the saponification step react more...
1999 - SCREENING FOR THE BIODEGRADATION POTENTIAL OF LUBRICANT ADDITIVES (PAPER # 9927) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) To fully achieve a lubricant package with a high degree of biodegradability, it makes sense that the modifying additives also be susceptible to breakdown in the environment. This challenge confronts the manufacturers and suppliers of these additives.
1999 - SEVERELY HYDROTREATED AND ISO-DEWAXED SPECIALTY BASESTOCKS (PAPER # 9920) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The performance demands of newer equipment designs in both the automotive and industrial market places, combined with more stringent environmental regulations, has placed a challenge squarely on the shoulders of basestock manufacturers and additive...
1999 - SPILLING THE BEANS ABOUT CASTOR OIL AND ITS DERIVATIVES (PAPER # 9905) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Castor oil, a unique 18 carbon fatty acid, is a multi faceted renewable resource. This presentation will explore some of the issues of supply and the wide range applications of the reacted products in the industrial chemical and lubricant markets.
1999 - STARTED LUBRICATION OF EHL CONTACTS - RELATIONSHIP TO BULK GREASE PR... (PAPER # 9904) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this paper the effect of grease composition (thickener type and concentration) on lubricant film thickness under starved conditions is investigated. Film thickness measurements have been made for a number of model greases made with the same base...
1999 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED CONTACT LUBRICANT BASED ON A SIX RING... (PAPER # 9929) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) One of the most difficult tribological problems is the successful lubrication of electrical connectors. In addition to reducing insertion forces, connector lubricants must prevent fretting corrosion of non-noble metal contacts, be relatively...
1999 - THE EFFECTS OF RUST INHIBITORS ON GREASE PROPERTIES (PAPER # 9922) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A 1998 paper by the same authors focused on a comparison of three ASTM grease rust tests: ASTM D 1743, the traditional static rust test in the U.S. which uses distilled water; ASTM D 5969, introduced in 1966 to include the use of synthetic sea water...
1999 - TWENTY FIRST CENTURY MILITARY BIODEGRADABLE GREASES (PAPER # 9901) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based hydrocarbons, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often as a consequence of leakage, accidental spills,...
2000 - A FEW INSIGHTS INTO GREASE TESTING (PAPER # 0019) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) What we all know about our products we learned from testing. Laboratory tests are used for research and development, quality control, and to determine the chemical and physical properties of greases and oils. Although various standards organizations...
2000 - A REVIEW OF THE MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS, METAL DEACTIVA... (PAPER # 0002) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Manufacturers of lubricating greases employ additives to meet industry and specification requirements currently in effect in this market sector. Antioxidants, metal deactivators, and corrosion inhibitors play a very important role in meeting these pe...
2000 - AN UNCONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO LOW TEMPERATURE GREASE (PAPER # 0009) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Greases manufactured for use in low to extremely low temperature climates have typically been formulated using polyalphaolefin or other costly synthetic basestocks. This has been primarily due to the fact that traditional mineral oil basestocks have...
2000 - ASHLESS RUST INHIBITORS FOR GREASES (PAPER # 0018) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Recent work has focused on the advantages of combining metal salt rust inhibitor chemistries to improve rust prevention in greases. This paper discusses the various ashless chemistries employed as rust inhibitors and presents the results of a systema...
2000 - CHLORINATED PARAFFINS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL AND... (PAPER # 0024) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a family of complex mixtures that have been widely used through industry for over the past forty years. The three main categories of CPs are described by their carbon chain lengths: short-chain (10-13 carbons), medium...
2000 - DEVELOPMENT OF A KEY LIFE TEST TO PREDICT AUTOMOTIVE BALL JOINT WEAR... (PAPER # 0008) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper summarizes the findings of a series of tribological tests performed on the internal design components of an automotive, lubricated-for-life, suspension/steering ball joint assembly. The objective of the study was to develop a new key life...
2000 - DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW OXIDATION STABILITY TEST METHOD FOR LUBRICATING... (PAPER # 0027) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Oxidation stability is one of the most important properties of lubricating oils and is intended to predict their storage and service life. To assess this property, numerous test methods have been developed for the specified applications (i.e., engine...
2000 - EFFECT OF PTFE PARTICLE SIZE ON WEAR AND COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (PAPER # 0025) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) PTFE particles are believed to improve lubrication by modifying the surface of moving parts coming in contact during high-pressure occurrences (boundary conditions). Under adequate pressure, these particles are able to cold flow into the asperities...
2000 - FUEL ECONOMY CONSIDERATIONS OF MULTIGRADE AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBRICANTS (PAPER # 0016) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Abstract was unavailable at press time. Vasu Bala, PhD's (Chemical Engineering), Pennsylvania State University, 1988, 1992 and 1993. His research interest lies in high shear rheology, mechanics of elastrohydrodynamics and boundary lubrication, elect...
2000 - GREASE COMPATIBILITY REVISITED (PAPER # 0004) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) "To mix or not to mix." Grease compatibility is a vital subject in the grease industry especially with the end users. The issue of grease compatibility is important across the spectrum of applications where grease is used as a lubricant. Incompatibil...
2000 - GREASE SHELF LIFE, NEW BEGINNINGS (PAPER # 0010) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A brief historical perspective on grease shelf life as well as an update on the current NLGI - ELGI grease shelf life working group. Peter Drechsler, received a B.S. degree in Physical Science from Central Connecticut State University. He has been...
2000 - GREASE THE FINAL FRONTIER: FORECASTING THE ADDITIVE REQUIREMENTS IN... (PAPER # 0005) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the performance requirements of grease is driven by several external factors. Key to ensuring that lubrication needs are met is the co-evolution of appropriate additive chemistry. The following paper will present an overview of the...
2000 - KNOW YOUR PLANT CAPACITY (PAPER # 0012) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper provides a summary of one method for evaluating grease plant operations. When adding new products to the product slate, introducing a new family of greases, or, simply, increasing production due to increased requirements, an objective...
2000 - LUBRICATING GREASES FROM PREFORMED SOAPS (PAPER # 0014) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Grease makers have always considered that it was more economical for them to make their own soaps in situ when making lubricating greases than purchasing preformed soaps. That may have been true in many instances, but perhaps this concept should be...
2000 - MODERN PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR A LUBRICATING GREASE PLANT (PAPER # 0028) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Kyodo Yushi's Kameyama Plant, the largest of its four factories (three in Japan and one in Singapore) and located in Mie, Japan, was put into operation in October, 1991. The plant has a monthly production capacity of 1,650 tons on an 8 hours per day,...
2000 - NEXT GENERATION LONG LIFE POLYUREA GREASES (PAPER # 0023) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Paper will discuss new advances in Polyurea technology highlighting improvements and key features including extended life, shear stability and compatibility. T. Tim Nadasti, PhD (Inorganic chemistry), University of Windsor. Currently working as...
2000 - PERFORMANCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYBEAN-BASED GREASES THICKENED... (PAPER # 0011) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Using oils from conventional and genetically modified soybeans, greases were developed using clay, Aluminum Complex and Lithium Complex. This paper will report on performance and characteristics of these greases. Dr. Lou Honary, is a tenured Associa...
2000 - POLYUREA GREASES - PART 1: TAPERED BEARING PERFORMANCE CORRELATION... (PAPER # 0006) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work we will attempt to establish a correlation between bearing performance and rheological responses of a series of greases. We will use various analytical techniques to monitor the behavior of these greases before during and after the perfo...
2000 - POLYUREA GREASES - PART 2: RHEOLOGICAL CORRELATION STUDY (PAPER # 0007) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work we will attempt to establish a correlation between bearing performance and rheological responses of a series of greases. We will use various analytical techniques to monitor the behavior of these greases before during and after the perfo...
2000 - THE APPLICATION OF SEM AND AFM TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF GREASE... (PAPER # 0017) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) At present there is no ideal method available to characterise the physical structure of grease thickener systems. Grease is typically composed of a solid thickener phase physically dispersed in base oil and has structure properties at many different...
2000 - THE FUTURE OF PUBLISHING FOR THE LUBRICANTS / GREASE INDUSTRY (PAPER # 0026) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Discussion of e-publishing, e-commerce and the use of the web to communicate information about lubricants and greases to users and customers. Diane Green, BS (Chemical Engineering) Villanova University. Currently the Publisher of Lubricants World...
2000 - THE NSF INTERNATIONAL NONFOOD COMPOUNDS REGISTRATION PROGRAM REPLACE... (PAPER # 0021) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In 198, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) discontinued its popular authorization program for Proprietary Substances and Nonfood Compounds that covered more than 6000 companies and 100,000 product names. NSF International responded to...
2001 - 'FRICTIONLESS' OPEN GEAR LUBRICANT (PAPER # 0109) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Should the load carrying capacity along with the anti wear protection remain the most desirable characteristics in an open gear lubricant? Should the component life always be strongly associated with these two properties and less so with the friction...
2001 - A STATUS REPORT ON PROMOTING THE USE OF BIOBASED LUBRICANTS MADE OF... (PAPER # 0102) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has coined the term BIOBASED to avoid controversies associated with the term biodegradable, as well as to create a starting point for these products to enter the market. While not fully approved by...
2001 - DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS VELOCITY JOINT, CVJ, TEST STAND TO ASSESS... (PAPER # 0118) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The thermal response and performance of a series of greases were conducted with a newly designed CVJ rig. This rig was engineered to use any commercially available CVJ. Both polyurea and Li based greases were selected for this work. A drive cycle bas...
2001 - ENHANCED PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBRICANTS (PAPER # 0131) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper highlights enhanced properties desired in automotive gear lubricants. Properties often desired by automotive and axle manufacturers include collective improvements in fuel economy, gear-bearing fatigue durability, shear stability,...
2001 - FOOD-GRADE LUBRICANTS AND GREASES: A NEW WORLD ORDER (PAPER # 0104) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper will review the changing global regulatory environment for food processing and will discuss the effect of these changes on the lubricant and grease industry. Until September 1998 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conjunctio...
2001 - FUTURE DIRECTIONS: EVALUATION OF GREASES FORMULATED WITH FUNCTIONALI... (PAPER # 0119) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The low temperature rheology and bearing performance of a series of grease lubricated bearings. Both polyurea and Li based greases were selected for this work. The rheological study was conducted from room temperature to -10°C. Both ASTM D4693 an...
2001 - IMPROVING PROFITABILITY USING ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT IN LUBRICANT... (PAPER # 0101) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The lubricant business consists of thousands of SKU's and multiple manufacturing processes. The high degree of complexity involved in the number of products and packaging combinations makes it nearly impossible for current accounting systems to ref...
2001 - INTERACTIONS OF A ZINC DITHIOPHOSPHATE WITH LITHIUM 12-HYDROXYSTEARA... (PAPER # 0106) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Greases based on lithium 12-hydroxystearate are the most important and versatile soap-based products, accounting for about 50% of the domestic grease production. Zinc dithiophosphates are commonly used additives in lubricating greases. They are used...
2001 - INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME NEW COMPLEXING AGENTS IN LITHIUM... (PAPER # 0125) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Lithium complex grease is one of the most versatile types of soap-based grease in industry today. The physical properties of lithium complex grease are controlled by numerous factors, an important one being the nature of the complexing agent. A wide...
2001 - INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM DISULPHIDE AND GRAPHITE... (PAPER # 0105) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The influence of molybdenum disulphide and graphite, in the range of 1-50%, on the load/wear properties of military grease XG-279 was demonstrated using four-ball test method IP 239. The molybdenum disulphide greases generally exhibited superior anti...
2001 - LITHIUM GREASES MADE SAFELY (PAPER # 0114) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Today about 65% of all greases produced are lithium greases. Making lithium greases requires the handling of the toxic lithium hydroxide monohydrate. There have been some modifications to this toxic material to reduce the hazards of handling it. These...
2001 - MANUFACTURING GREASE USING DRY TECHNOLOGY (PAPER # 0121) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) All lubricating greases consist of two primary ingredients. A base fluid which is the major component and which also provides most of the lubrication function. The other component is the thickener, which serves to immobilize the fluid. The choice of...
2001 - PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF GREASES FOR SPACE MECHANISMS USING A VACUUM... (PAPER # 0111) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) IMost currently used greases for space applications are based on perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPE) and multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) oils. Evaluation of the greases includes outgassing properties, rheological behavior, and particularly the abil...
2001 - PROPER GREASE SELECTION REDUCES STEAM VALVE MAINTENANCE (PAPER # 0123) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The proper lubrication of motor operated valves (MOVs), used throughout the nuclear power generating industry to control the flow of steam, has been the focus of several ongoing and lengthy studies. The search for one grease that can properly...
2001 - RELATIVE RATES OF GREASE OXIDATION IN A PEN STATE MICROOXIDATION APP... (PAPER # 0126) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The relative rates of grease oxidation in a Penn State Microoxidation apparatus on glass and on steel sample pans are compared and discussed. Two parameters which were tracked in each experiment; weight loss, and the amount of non-volatile polar mate...
2001 - SECONDARY CONTAINMENT OPTIONS FOR ABOVEGROUND AND UNDERGROUND STORAG... (PAPER # 0115) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Around 1990, tank owners began to consider alternative options for the storage of hazardous liquids besides underground storage tanks. One option was to store product in shop-fabricated aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Because of the public's grea...
2001 - SLIDE CAM COMPOUND GREASE LUBRICANT: DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION (PAPER # 0122) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The evolution of the cam and slide compound type lubricants have undergone many changes in the last several years especially since the ban on chlorinated solvents came into effect in 1995. Several new grease based, solvent-free slide cam lubricants,...
2001 - TAIL OIL-DERIVED STEARIC ACID AS THE THICKENER PRECURSOR FOR THE MAN... (PAPER # 0129) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Various types of stearic acid have been used as thickener precursors for the manufacture of greases. These greases include calcium-, aluminum-, and lithium-based products. A survey of the performance of selected stearic acids as the thickener precurs...
2001 - THE 2000 NLGI ANNUAL GREASE SURVEY IN PLAIN ENGLISH (PAPER # 0130) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Verbal explanation of NLGI's 2000 Annual Survey
2001 - THE EFFECT OF FRICTION MODIFIER ADDITIVES ON CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT... (PAPER # 0127) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In a previous NLGI annual meeting paper presented in Tucson in 1999, constant velocity joints (CVJs), as used to transmit torque in the drivelines of cars and light trucks, and the greases used to lubricate them were described in general terms. As...
2001 - THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE TYPE AND PURITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PAO BAS... (PAPER # 0113) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Poly alpha olefin grease was utilized to study the effect that graphite has on the wear characteristics and extreme pressure properties of this grease base. Neat PAO and PAO blends with each of four types of graphite were evaluated using ASTM 2596 an...
2001 - THE NSF INTERNATIONAL NONFOOD COMPOUNDS REGISTRATION AND LISTING PRO... (PAPER # 0108) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Since 1999, the NSF Nonfood Compounds Registration Program, a replacement of the USDA authorization program for proprietary substances and nonfood compounds, has received overwhelming response from the lubricants industry. This manuscript summarizes...
2001 - THE OUTLOOK FOR BASESTOCKS IN GREASE (PAPER # 0107) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) This paper presents information and insights on how the shift from API Group I to Groups II/II+ and III base stocks is, and, will likely continue to impact the grease business in the US market. In addition to examining how performance requirements,...
2001 - TURN YOUR WEBSITE INTO AN E-COMMERCE SYSTEM (PAPER # 0117) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A brief case study of the decision, design, and development process used by RT Vanderbilt to build an economical internet commerce system. Presentation will be followed by an open discussion on how attendees can add E Commerce functionally to their...
2002 - A MANUFACTURING ECONOMIC COMPARISON: STRATCO® CONTACTOR™ REACTOR... (PAPER # 0202) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The focus of this paper is to compare the economics of operating a grease manufacturing facility utilizing a Contactor reactor versus an open kettle reactor. The design and functional differences between the two types of reactors will be illustrated...
2002 - A STUDY ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF DIUREA GREASE (PAPER # 0219) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this test, amine and diisocyanate were used to synthesize diurea grease, and during the refining process collected samples with the container temperature increasing. The process of producing diurea grease was explored by mass spectroscopy (MS) and...
2002 - A STUDY ON WEAR PROPERTIES AND FILM THICKNESS OF UREA GREASES (PAPER # 0223) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Urea greases are widely used for the application of auto parts, such as electrical equipment, are excellent in high temperature high speed property. We consider that film thickness of greases in rolling bearings under high temperature and high sp...
2002 - ADVANCED LUBRICANTS BASED ON MULTIPLY ALKYLATED CYCLOPENTANE, POLYPH... (PAPER # 0209) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Advanced lubricants based on multiply alkylated cyclopentane, polyphenylether, and silahydrocarbon is a technical presentation discussing the chemical and physical properties of these synthetic fluids and grease made with them. A brief discussion fol...
2002 - CALCIUM SULFONATE COMPLEX GREASE:THE NEXT GENERATION FOOD MACHINERY... (PAPER # 0221) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Calcium sulfonate complex grease is recognized as an excellent technology for grease applications where heat, water, and high or shock loads exist. Its inherent properties are well known and include excellent corrosion resistance, low wear and high...
2002 - CFD ANALYSIS OF A LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH KMX STATIC MIXERS (PAPER # 0205) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The behavior of the Kenics KMX static mixer, a new product from Chemineer, Incorporated, has been studied using CFD. A high resolution 3D mesh (over 2.5M unknowns per element mixer) and periodic boundary condition technique were employed to perform...
2002 - DEVELOPMENT OF NEW LUBRICATING GREASE FOR OUTER RING ROTATION BEARING (PAPER # 0204) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) A new lubricating grease developed for automobile instrument and auxiliary bearing, especially outer ring rotation bearing. These bearings need long lubricating life, low noise characteristic at wide temperature range, rust preventive characteristics...
2002 - EARTH FRIENDLY VEGETABLE OIL BASED GREASES THICKENED WITH ORGANOPHIL... (PAPER # 0216) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Some European nations have been prompting and even mandating the use of biodegradable greases for more than two decades. More recently in the U.S., federal and state governments are promoting biobased fuels and lubricants. Biodegradable greases thick...
2002 - FLEET GREASES - TIME FOR A CHANGE? (PAPER # 0215) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Current industry grease specifications are primarily focused on light duty automotive applications and were developed relative to the needs of car and light truck applications. Modern fleets operating vehicles in DOT Classes 3-8, particularly Class 8...
2002 - FLOW OBSERVATION OF LUBRICATING GREASES IN CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINTS (PAPER # 0224) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In constant velocity joints (CVJ) grease development, we have to consider the prevention of starvation to a lubricating part with the increase in sliding speed condition. Then, the method of visualizing and quantifying the mobility of the grease in...
2002 - GREEN BIODIESEL - AN ECONOMIC CHALLENGE FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE 3... (PAPER # 0211) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The idea to use vegetable oils as lubricants and fuel is absolutely not new. Indeed the esters - mainly methyl esters - of the fatty acids of these natural oils are being used and not the oils as itselves. Already Rudolf Diesel, the father of the...
2002 - INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF A GREASE-LUBRICATED ROLLING CONTACT (PAPER # 0212) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) In this work, the composition of the grease lubricant film around a rolling contact has been examined using infrared reflectance microspectroscopy. Results have been compared with film thickness and 'out-of-contact' infrared microspectroscopy res...
2002 - INVESTIGATION ON OXIDATION STABILITY OF DIUREA GREASE USING DSC (PAPER # 0203) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Oxidation stability (OS) of greases is one of the most important properties in the storage and use of the grease. The influences of several factors on the OS were investigated with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), such as the structure of the...
2002 - LITHIUM COMPLEX THICKENED GREASE SHOWS IMPROVED WATER RESISTANCE WIT... (PAPER # 0208) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Water washout characteristics and mechanical shear stability were investigated in a lithium complex thickened grease formulated with a bismuth carboxylate. Test results indicate that the water resistant properties of the lithium complex grease were...
2002 - LUBRICANTS FOR WIND POWER PLANTS (PAPER # 0220) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Overview on the market of wind power plants, future trends in design, location, lubricant requirements and solutions.
2002 - PERFORMANCE OF MIXTURES OF LUBRICATING GREASES WITH DIFFERENT THICKE... (PAPER # 0217) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) When lubricating greases made with different thickeners are mixed by accident or on purpose, usually the question of their compatibility comes up and in this paper the authors want to illustrate that it is performance which has to be queried.
2002 - POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE LOW TEMPERATURE PROPE... (PAPER # 0214) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The use of pour point depressants to lower the pour point of engine oils is well known in the literature and the types of pour points depressants are varied. Typically these highly viscous or solid polymers are delivered in oils or some other type of...
2002 - RECENT IMPROVEMENTS AND NEW UTILIZATION IN PISTON TANK TECHNOLOGY (PAPER # 0206) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Piston Tank Technology has been utilized in the Motor Carrier delivery of bulk greases since 1973. The development of these types of tanks for motor transportation was first described at an annual meeting of the NLGI in the 70s. Subsequently, in 1...
2002 - SUCCESSFUL CREATION OF A GREASE PILOT PLANT: BLOOD, SWEAT, AND SOME... (PAPER # 0222) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The installation of a pilot plant based on a contactor manufacturing system requires a considerable amount of expense in terms of equipment and time. After initial purchase, management must support the continuation of funding for process development...
2002 - THE APPLICATION OF RHEOLOGY TO GREASE CHARACTERISATION (PAPER # 0213) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The use of Rheology to evaluate the performance characteristics of grease is nothing new. The first paper published in the NLGI Spokesman concerning the rheology of greases appeared in Mar 1950, ("Basic Factors concerning the Structure and Rheology...
2002 - THE NSF INTERNATIONAL NONFOOD COMPOUNDS REGISTRATION AND LISTING PRO... (PAPER # 0201) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) It has been almost four years since the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) discontinued authorization and listing of food-grade lubricants. It is estimated that more than half of the products listed in the fin...
2003 - A DESIGN APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CVJ ADDITIVES (PAPER # 0323) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Description of a design of experiment, D5706 tribological data and SEM analysis of the tested parts for the development of additive packages for CVJ greases.
2003 - A MICROGRAPHIC COMPARISON OF GREASES: STRATCO® CONTACTOR™ REACTOR... (PAPER # 0314) NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) The focus of this paper is to compare the structural differences of greases manufactured by three different methods. The manufacturing processes considered in this study are: (1) the STRATCO® Contactor™ reactor process, (2) the autoclave method an...